We share a common bond, we are all human.
Commonalities in Hinduism and Judaism.
by V.M. Kelkar , Y.D. Vaishnav
The message of peace by great men like Buddha, Mahavira, Jesus, or Mahatma Gandhi of our times is like a lighthouse to show the way to humanity. Religions preach nonviolence and unity of humanity. Some followers however, behave as though humanity is divided in religion, race, color etc. Apparently the hold of religion on human mind in general is slackening. Of the major religions of today Hinduism and Judaism are the two most ancient religions. In this article an attempt is made to draw attention to the commonalties in religions, as evidence of inherent unity of humanity. It is suggested that emphasis on commonalties would lead to introducing the concept of religious coexistence and consequently, survival of religion as the true spiritual entity guiding humanity in the era of fast moving materialistic world.
Religion has been present all-along in the history of humanity. Religion has since produced great systems of morality and law. It has been an important factor to mold individual and collective attitude linking philosophy and life and forms part of culture and civilized life. Religion implies a system of faith and worship based on human recognition of superhuman controlling power. Only a free unconditioned mind could view the history of religions in a true perspective. In this view well before Christianity, prominent marks are Judaism and Buddhism. Before that Vedic culture completely pervaded across Central Asia, Egypt and Greece. It is now in Hinduism. It may be noticed that major religions, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam have come up with a time separation of approximately 500 to 600 years each, after Judaism. A near or close-up view of that period shows more features.
Rising of a new religion is a slow process. During the process foundational commonalties tend to remain behind. May it be lighting of an auspicious lamp symbolically removing darkness or worshipping fire, or sun or idol. Some converted Christian families are said to have retained idols for centuries. As these rituals are practiced in the social matrix of the family, their communal practices pass on from generation to generation. The deity Yahava may be an eloquent example both of sentiment and faith. Seven thousand years ago, the god of sailors in Egypt, was Yahava. The same is the original word for Jewish god, `Yehovah or Jehovah'. Monotheist Aryan races too addressed their god as Yavha in the hymns of Rigveda. The same Vedic god Yahava is god Yahoba of Christian and Islamic religions. (YVH are common). This commonalty linked to faith could only be due to the inherent emotional unity of humanity over the past 7000 years.
By the latter half of the last millennium religions were being propagated and a social system appeared to have stabilized. By then a new factor of growth of scientific knowledge that triggered industrial revolution emerged. The industrial and technological development no doubt lead to improvement of the human living conditions but also initiated the decline of religions. Today, the conditions are more complex and turbid. The advancement of science and technology appears to be only materialistic. The need for religion to prevail is felt all the more for the reigns of development to remain in good hands. All over the globe, intolerance and human propensity towards violence, crime and immoral acts is on the rise. Pressures of modern living are increasing. People, independent of religion, run after livelihood and material enjoyment and have no time for their spiritual requirements or of their children. The situation is worse in the metropolitan complexes of the world. Attractions loom large with powerful individual appeal. Religions tend to become institutionalized in place of dedication or service. It is a matter of concern that religion appears to be loosing the grip, giving rise to fear that the very existence of religion may be challenged. This is applicable to all religions alike, not a particular one. The hope that one-day humanity may see the status close to the divine immortality blessed with happiness, peace and tranquility is eluding.
Discussing the corrective ways and means is beyond the scope of this article. It is important to bring out the concept of religious coexistence and the commonalties between and among religions need to be appreciated. This would lead to the awareness of the inherent unity of humanity. The paragraphs that follow bring out some of the commonalties between the two ancient religions of Hinduism and Judaism.
There are many commonalties among the social rules between the ancient Hindu and the Judaic religions. The Hindu society of today follows attributed worship of the Almighty. This has also been the widespread popular religion of Celtic society in Great Briton up to the 7th century after CE. These are also the same practices and thinking propagated by Herald the Great of Jerusalem, In fact, at the beginning of the early centuries after CE, this religion had become a
universal international religion of the human civilization. The name Hindu of the Indian religion of the post Vedic period is comparatively recent though the entity is very ancient.
The earliest ancestor Hazrat Abraham of the Hebrews was born in the capital city Ur on the south bank of the River Euphrates, of the ancient kingdom of "Kaldi" (Messopotamia). He, along with his father Terah, family members, and some followers, left Ur and stayed in Haran City in Syria. Around 1850 BC, they migrated from Haran to Egypt via Carman (Israel). After the lapse of about 5 centuries, (~1350 BC) the Hebrews wandering under the leadership of Hazarat Musa, in search of the country with rivers flowing with milk and honey, returned towards north east and established a nation in Jerusalem. The Babylonian captivity of the Jews from their country by Nabukadnessar in 587 BC had lasted about 50 years. During the period there was considerable admixture both of race and ideas with the Babylonians. It is said that the Jews went to Babylon barbarians and returned civilized. In the paragraphs that follow some commonalties and the traditional relations between the Hindus and the Jews are given.
The Sun god, Shums was the main god. His principal place of worship was City-state Sippar. People from long distances visited Sippar City to perform Puja (Hindu worship-ritual). In some other cities, moon god Sin and goddess Ishtar (Venus) were worshipped. One of the Sanskrit names of the moon is Sinni Bali. These two words Sin and Bal denoting moon and deity respectively had become established in the region. In the Yehudi Bible, there is a reference to the Upasana (devotion) of Sikkuth (Assur deity Ninip) and Chiun Kavannu (Saturn), by Mansekh. The description in Bible of the idol worshipper groups among Jews is indicative that they used to give offerings and sacrifices to Bal, Sun, Moon god at high places. Jewish rulers also offered horse and chariot to the Sun god in sacrifice. This indicates that both the religions had similar rituals.
The Doctrine of one god worship of Islam or monotheism is the gift of the Jewish religion. The Jews absorbed true monotheism during their last years of the journey from Egypt from the preaching of Pharaoh Akhnaten of Egypt. Pharaoh Akhnaten (1375-1350 BC) was a strong believer in Vedic philosophy. The Hindu society continues to follow worship of the Almighty in varieties of ways. Idols are not ends in themselves, but a means to realize the Almighty.
From the dialog in Old Bible (Old Testament), when Abraham asks some land from Hittites to bury his dead wife Sara, it becomes clear from the paragraph on Abraham that up to 1820 BC Jews and Hittites followed the same religion and worshipped the Vedic deity `Yahava' alike. The Hindu religion descended from Vedic religion.
The Jewish calendar is lunar consisting of 12 months each commencing at the new moon. In India the calendar followed is lunar for all religious ceremonies. The first month of the year falls in spring depending on the leap month. To adjust the solar and lunar years one extra month (leap month) is added every 3 years.
Often many similarities are cited that appear having Hindu origins. These however, need to be inferred and understood objectively unlike archaeology where studying layer after layer is possible. Sheba in ancient Hebrew means the lord of the Shabbath. Sheba is in fact, a variation in pronunciation of the Hindu deity Shiva.
Bramha means Brahaspati or the Jupiter or the creator. Abram or Abraham is the Dravid-Phynougriyan pronunciation of Brahma. The consort of Bramha is Saraswati.(abbreviated as Sara?). Thus the names, Abraham and Sara are likened to Brahma and Saraswati.
Immortality of The Soul
Both religions believe in immortality of the soul.
The upanayana (thread) ceremony of Hindus is like Bar-Mitzvah, the Jewish ceremony of calling up the boy to the Reading of the Law on the Sabbath following his 13th birthday, to give second sight to the boy. It is performed before the completion of 12 years but not before the 8th year. Upanayana represents a transition to adolescence, to adulthood. In both faiths it is a spiritual ceremony. The boy's head is shaved, he is given the sacred thread to wear, a bowl to beg and the dried skin of an antelope. He is then asked to go to the monastery of his guru for a 12-year study. If missed, the ceremony is performed before marriage as a formality. The Jewish custom includes Bar-Mitzvah for girls also.
Lighting of lamps, candles, show of fire works at homes and distributing of sweets at the Depawali festival on the new moon's day in Oct.- Nov., is similar to Jewish Hanukah festival. The Dipawali festival spreads over 3 to 5 days. It is generally the beginning of the new financial year for the trading community when new account books are opened. Laxmi, the Goddess of wealth and beauty is welcomed with special decorations at the doorsteps.
Pasheha and Pongal
Since crop harvesting times the Jews were in Egypt (before exodus), the sacred festival "Pesheha" of Jews, was celebrated in the main crop harvesting season. This falls in Egypt in the Pokan month, which is the harvest-reaping month. In Kerala and other south Indian languages, the pronunciation na and la are interchangeable. In the Arab countries like in Tamil, for ka and ga there is only one letter. In Egypt, Kamal is pronounced as Gamal. On this basis, in a way Pongal (k as g) or Ponkan (n as l) describes one and the same festival. Pongal is an important harvest festival of Tamilnadu in South India.
A Hindu and A Jew by Birth
In their origin both the religions believe that the religion of member in the family is by birth.
There is an annual festival of God Ayyappa on Shabarimalayari in Kerala. Shabarimalayari literally means, the mountain of Shaber tribes. A Jewish citizen of Israel is called `Shaber' only if born in Israel. This is not only the proven example of common culture between ancient India and the Jewish traders of the Mediterranean, but also makes the word Israel of the Jewish Bible more meaningful. Israel is the title of Yakub, the father of Yusuf, which according to the Bible, the title "Israel" meaning wrestler was awarded to him due to his wrestling with god. Ayyapa had to do similar wrestling with a non Hindu Warrior Vavar.
Jewish Royal Dynasty in India
Kerala has always given refuge to Jews since the prechristian era. It is said in Cochi that the earliest 10,000 Jews arrived near Cranganur and settled at nearby places at the time of Shalva Asur (Sshalvanesar IV). The King, gave to them a copper plate with inscriptions, and donated a kingdom. The dynasty ruled in Mattanchery in Cochi for nearly 2000 years.
The Days of purification
If a woman bears a male child she will remain unclean for 11 days. She will however not be allowed to touch religious or hallowed things for 22 days. A woman who menstruates shall neither cook food or touch cooking utensils, water vessels and bedsteads until her 5th day bath, the day being counted by lunar calendar i.e. tithi. There have been many common practices both in ancient Indian and Jewish traditions.
The visit to the Ayappa shrine during the Pongal festival is restricted to male members of the community. A woman who menstruates is not allowed to come to the shrine. This is the practice also adopted by the Jews excluding the women folk from the Synagogues. Traditionally Hindus follow similar customs.
According to Vedic marriage the resolve of the bridegroom and bride to lead their common life according to the code of ethics is repeated in Sanskrit. Both of them walk seven steps near or seven times around the sacred fire. In a traditional Jewish wedding the bride is led seven times around the bridegroom.
It is concluded that religions having emerged from the same humanity, commonalties in thinking and rituals are bound to occur. On the basis of commonalties cited amongst two very ancient religions of humanity show the way to converge towards the unity of humanity.
Let the supreme guiding power be invoked to help humanity walk on the path to divine immortality!
Prayer to Apollo
When the clouds cover our thoughts
Strike your beam of clarity
When the cold creeps into our skin
Burn your fire of healing
Apollo the golden king
crown made of laurel leaves
Apollo play your lyre and sing
words of wisdom and prophecy
When my mind grows dim
emotions clanging a chaotic din
guide me to reason and harmony
When I cannot see the light
of creativity, let me partake
of your brightness, O Apollo
So many loves did escape you
In the laurel tree, or the hyacinth
Don't shine too brightly, dear Apollo
Don't let our fires consume us
But let the sun nourish the Earth
Native American Section - When the Animals and Birds Were Created
The Indians who live on the farthest point of the northwest corner of Washington State used to tell stories, not about one Changer, but about the Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things. So did their close relatives, who lived on Vancouver Island, across the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
When the world was very young, there were no people on the earth. There were no birds or animals, either. There was nothing but grass and sand and creatures that were neither animals nor people but had some of the traits of people and some of the traits of animals.
Then the two brothers of the Sun and the Moon came to the earth. Their names were Ho-ho-e-ap-bess, which means "The Two-Men-Who- Changed-Things." They came to make the earth ready for a new race of people, the Indians. The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things called all the creatures to them. Some they changed to animals and birds. Some they changed to trees and smaller plants.
Among them was a bad thief. He was always stealing food from creatures who were fishermen and hunters. The Two-Men-Who- Changed-Things transformed him into Seal. They shortened his arms and tied his legs so that only his feet could move. Then they threw Seal into the Ocean and said to him, "Now you will have to catch your own fish if you are to have anything to eat."
One of the creatures was a great fisherman. He was always on the rocks or was wading with his long fishing spear. He kept it ready to thrust into some fish. He always wore a little cape, round and white over his shoulders. The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things transformed him into Great Blue Heron. The cape became the white feathers around the neck of Great Blue Heron. The long fishing spear became his sharp pointed bill.
Another creature was both a fisherman and a thief. He had stolen a necklace of shells. The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things transformed him into Kingfisher. The necklace of shells was turned into a ring of feathers around Kingfisher's neck. He is still a fisherman. He watches the water, and when he sees a fish, he dives headfirst with a splash into the water.
Two creatures had huge appetites. They devoured everything they could find. The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things transformed one of them into Raven. They transformed his wife into Crow. Both Raven and Crow were given strong beaks so that they could tear their food. Raven croaks "Cr-r-ruck!" and Crow answers with a loud "Cah! Cah!"
The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things called Bluejay's son to them and asked, "Which do you wish to be--a bird or a fish?"
"I don't want to be either," he answered.
"Then we will transform you into Mink. You will live on land. You will eat the fish you can catch from the water or can pick up on the shore. "
Then the Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things remembered that the new people would need wood for many things.
They called one of the creatures to them and said "The Indians will want tough wood to make bows with. They will want tough wood to make wedges with, so that they can split logs. You are tough and strong. We will change you into the yew tree."
They called some little creatures to them. "The new people will need many slender, straight shoots for arrows. You will be the arrowwood. You will be white with many blossoms in early summer."
They called a big, fat creature to them. "The Indians will need big trunks with soft wood so that they can make canoes. You will be the cedar trees. The Indians will make many things from your bark and from your roots."
The Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things knew that the Indians would need wood for fuel. So they called an old creature to them. "You are old, and your heart is dry. You will make good kindling, for your grease has turned hard and will make pitch. You will be the spruce tree. When you grow old, you will always make dry wood that will be good for fires."
To another creature they said, "You shall be the hemlock. Your bark will be good for tanning hides. Your branches will be used in the sweat lodges."
A creature with a cross temper they changed into a crab apple tree, saying, "You shall always bear sour fruit."
Another creature they changed into the wild cherry tree, so that the new people would have fruit and could use the cherry bark for medicine.
A thin, tough creature they changed into the alder tree, so that the new people would have hard wood for their canoe paddles.
Thus the Two-Men-Who-Changed-Things got the world ready for the new people who were to come. They made the world as it was when the Indians lived in it.
"Everyone ought to worship God according to his own inclinations, and not to be constrained by force".
Flavius Josephus (37 AD - 100 AD)
County Clare's Irish Root Soup
2 T Olive Oil 2 pounds carrots, peeled and sliced
1 T Butter 2 leeks (white part only) sliced
6 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped 4 cups chicken stock
2 cups whipping cream pinch of salt
pinch of white pepper 2 T sugar
2 pounds sweet potatoes, peeled, halved, boiled and oven-roasted ( see note)
NOTE: Boil potatoes about 10 minutes, then oven-roast by placing potatoes in 350 oven about 30 minutes or until browned and tender.
Heat oil and butter in large heavy saucepan over medium heat. Add carrots, leeks, garlic and sweet potatoes. Sauté until leeks are translucent, about 8 minutes.
Add stock and cream. Cover and simmer until carrots and potatoes are very soft, stirring occasionally, about 30 minutes.
Puree soup in batches in blender. Return soup to same pan.
Add salt, pepper and sugar. Taste and adjust seasonings
Stir soup over medium heat until heated through. Ladle into bowls and top with a bit of cream garnish. Makes 6 serving.
2 pounds fresh salmon, skin on, with pin bones and scales removed
Cracked black pepper
1/2 cup brown sugar
3 tablespoons chopped fresh dill
4 cups kosher salt
1 ounce whiskey
Season salmon with a thick coating of pepper, sugar and dill. Put a 1/2-inch layer of salt in a dish, and lay salmon skin side down on salt. Drizzle whiskey over salmon.
Top salmon with a thick layer of salt, making sure it is completely covered. Tightly wrap in plastic wrap and weigh it down with a 1-pound can or weight. Refrigerate for 2 to 3 days.
Remove salmon from salt crust and rinse off. With a very sharp knife, slice salmon on the bias as thin as possible.
Serve as a garnish with Dublin Seafood Coddle or as an appetizer with brown bread and a dill cr?me fra?che or dollop of sour cream. Gravlax can be stored, tightly wrapped, in refrigerator for up to a week.
Yield: 2 pounds, or about 16 2-ounce servings.
Three things not easily found: an arrogant person generous, a young person wise, and an old person mannerly.
For those of us with a linguistic bent, "animism" is what it sounds like -- a tenet of belief which posits a certain "animation" or "animal nature" in things not generally credited with awareness much less sanctity. Old Noah Webster's reliable book offers a choice of three definitions, each with varying levels of interest and application in terms of Paganism:
a doctrine that the vital principle of organic development is immaterial spirit,
attribution of conscious life to nature or natural objects, and
belief in the existence of spirits separable from bodies.
Note that this term encompasses three different tenets of belief which may or may not overlap within a given person's spiritual conceptualization of existence. That makes discussing animism a bit tricky, since one must specify which definition one means.
First let's consider definition #1. This one is quite commonly held at least in regards to higher lifeforms. I think all human religions have some concept of soul, except perhaps certain atheist branches where awareness is considered an illusion which will wink out upon death. But the Judeo-Christian family of religions has waged an incredible debate throughout history as to just which types of organic bodies one may legitimately apply this tenet to. At various points, women and other members of the human race have actually been ruled soulless. Most of the "mainstream" religions now draw the line between humans and animals; thus humans have souls and animals don't, according to these doctrines. To apply this tenet across the board and say that a certain ineffable spirit animates all organic matter ... that's pretty Pagan. It becomes all the more so if one extends this to an influence over individual or species evolution. This particular tenet appears in various forms in more than one Pagan tradition.
Now we move on to definition #2, perhaps the most common application meant when people use the term "animism" and arguably the most Pagan of the three. Most of the "mainstream" traditions vehemently deny the very notion that "objects" could possess any sense of awareness. Yet this tenet appears in almost all Pagan traditions with varying degrees of intensity; two of the most conspicuous being Native American (any tribe) and Australian Aborigine. I suspect that most folks in the Pagan community have direct personal experience with this, and perhaps some amusing stories about what happens when uneducated representatives of the "mainstream" society tangle with aspects of nature presumed to be inert and helpless. In this form, animism forms the mainstay of some traditions and a minor supporting theme in others. If you go to China or Japan, you can find a great many kami shrines tucked away to honor the spirits of particular rocks, springs, mountains, caves, you name it.
Finally, think about definition #3. It seems reasonable that if a spirit animates a body, that spirit might be able to move around to animate some other body (or at least cohabit with the other body's own spirit) and perhaps even get along fine without a body under at least some circumstances. Again, most folks in the Pagan community probably have direct personal experience with this in one way or another; and again it is a very common tenet in Pagan traditions, so much so that many of them offer shamanic training or other teaching to prevent out-of-body accidents. Also worth examining is the effect of the "mainstream" materialist attitude; to wit, members of the modern cultures are rather likely to get lost or panicked if separated from their bodies. The acceptance of spirit travel beyond the body, and deliberate cultivation of this ability, is definitely a Pagan concept although not restricted to our paradigms. The same holds true regarding belief in discorporeal entities, as many Pagan traditions also teach methods of contacting spirit helpers, communicating with them, working with them, and so forth.
In conclusion, animism really fits under "tenet of belief" rather than "tradition." However, if it is the only tenet of belief held by a particular person, then animism takes on much greater influence and can function as a belief system in its own right. This is most noticeable with atheists who do not acknowledge a personified sacred force but do acknowledge the awareness in natural objects, or who are interested in various discorporeal but non-divine entities. So a simple tenet of belief can serve as much more under some circumstances.
Divination Section: Halomancy - This covers the different mehtods of using salt to divinate. In some cases by random patterns. In anther case by throwing salt into a fire and so forth.
Herb Section: Hazel (Coylus spp) -
Eating hazelnuts can benefit obese people in losing weight. It causes a person
to be satiated for a longer period of time.
Magickal uses include Hazel's forked branches which are used for divining,
and the wood makes wonderful wands. Hazel nuts hung in the house will bring
luck, and can be carried to cause fertility. Eaten, the nuts bring wisdom. Hazel
is an ancient Celtic tree of wisdom, inspiration and poetry. Dian Cecht, the god
of healing, invented a porridge that would cure colds, sore throats, and worms.
According to legend, it consisted of hazel bubs, dandelions, chickweed, sorrel,
and oatmeal. It was to be taken in the mornings and evenings. The nuts are strung and hung in the house for good luck. Give this to a bride to wish her luck in her home. The nuts are often eaten for wisdom and fertility especially before divination. Hazel crowns have been used for granting wishes and invisibility. To protect your home from lightning place the twigs in the window frames, driving three pins of hazel wood into your home will protect it from fire. Forked hazel branches are used by dowsers and hazel in general make fine all purpose wands.
Hazel nuts are rich in phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and copper.
Faery Section: Korreds - Brittany. These male elves are the guardians of the standing stones. They have large heads with large facial features. their bodies are hairy with very thin legs and arms. They seem to take great joy in frightening humans away from the stones.
A Little about Dr. John Dee: Dr. John Dee (1527-1608)
He was a influential Renaissance figure, John Dee was Queen Elizabeth's scientific advisor.Later on in life, he became disillusioned with pure science and started experimenting with occult practices of the day. Many of his esoteric writings were kept secret and only discovered by accident long after his death. These writings include;
Five Books of Mystery (Mysteriorum Libri Quinque)
Mysteriorum Liber Sextus et Sanctus (Liber Loagaeth)
Index Verborum of the "Angelic Language" from Liber Loagaeth
Compendium Heptarchiae Mysticae
De Heptarchia Mystica
Monas Hieroglyphica (The Hieroglyphic Monad) English French
Tuba Veneris ('The Trumpet of Venus')
Tabula bonorum angelorum invocationes
The Holy Table engraving from Casaubon's True and Faithful Relation
An excerpt form Josten's translation of the Hieroglyphic Monad
A Letter Containing a most briefe Discourse Apologeticall
Meric Casaubon: A True and Faithful Relation (excerpts)
Among other accomplishments he was the founder of the Rosicrucian Order.
John Dee was known as an alchemist; hermeticist and cabalist, and was adept in esoteric and occcult lore.
Along with Edward Kelley, John Dee established the Enochian (Angelic language) system.
About Litha: Litha - ( June 20th. - 23rd. dependant on actual astrological event )
The powers of nature are at their highest. This is a time for the Feast of Epona, the Celtic Horse goddess. Litha is a Solar festival.
Faeries are at the height of their power. This is the best time of year to encounter faeries, devas and so forth.
Dancing around the mulberry bush is considered protection against faeries.
Just like Samhain, this is an ideal time for divinations and healing rituals.
It is believed that the veils between the worlds, just like at Samhain, are thinnest and the spirits of the dead pass through freely.
Herbs gathered on this day are considered very powerful.
The astrological date is when the sun reaches the Tropic of Cancer. The first battle between the Tuatha De Danann and the Fir Bolgs occurred on this day. The Spear (male icon) and the Cauldron (female icon) is representative of this day
Crick's Corner: Greetings folks; why is there so much strife in the world? It seems like every religious belief in the worls at present, preaches about love and forgiveness. And yet the two or three major religions in the world are at each others throats. As a result people are dying in droves.
Where is the love? Where is the forgiveness?
Even among those who call themselves pagan there is a huge unsatiable appetite for drama that plays itself out in countless communities around the world. These folks aren't killing anyone but the constant negativity is killing our souls. And yet it goes on.
We talk about spiritual lessons and then as a divided spiritual community we pay no more then lip service. Of course there are always shining examples of folks who actually get it and strive forward in their personal growth. But humans over all are failing the grade. It takes people to man guns and set off bombs and to engage in all of the wanton acts of destruction that we seem so engrossed with.
But remove the people and all you have is blissful silence. A silence where there is a possibilty the hushed tones of peace, love and understanding could finally be heard. And so once again I ask, where is the love? Where is the understanding and acceptance, where is the forgiveness?
Until next time Cailleachs...
A friends eye is a good mirror.
"Is maith an scáthán súil carad."
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