Aah, Ahy, Aken, Aker, Amathaunta, Amaunet, Ament, Am-Heh, Ammut, Amon, Amset, Anat, Andjety, Anhur, Ankhet, Ankt, Anti, Anubis (Inupu), Anukis (Anuket), Apep, Apepi, Apet, Apis, Ap-uat, Arensnuphis, Aset (Isis), Ash, Astennu (Asten), Aten, Atum, Babi, Bakha, Banebdjedet, Ba-Pef, Bastet, Bata, Beb, Bennu, Bes, Buto, Benu, Bes, Chem, Chensit, Chenti-cheti, Chnum, Chons,
Chontamenti, Duamutef, Dedun, Djebauti, Ernutet, Geb
Hapi, Hapy, Harachte, Harpakhrad, Hatmehet, Hathor, Hat, Hauhet, Hedetet, Heget, Heh, Heka, Heket, Hemen, Hemsut, Heretkau, Herishef, Hesat, Horakhte, Horemakhet, Horus, Hu, Ihu, Ihy, Imhotep, Imiut, Immutef, Ipet, Isdes, Isis, Isten, Juesaes, Kauket, Kebechet, Kebechsenef, Kek, Kenwer, Khentamentiu, Khenty-Imentiu, Kheper, Khnum, Khonsu, Máahes, Maat, Mafdet, Mehurt, Menhit, Mentu, Meret, Meretseger, Meskhenet, Min, Montu, Mut
Naunet, Nechmetawaj, Nefertum, Nehebukau, Neith, Nekhbet, Nenun, Nephthys, Nepit, Nun, Nut, Onuris, Opet, Osiris, Pachet, Petbe, Petesuchos, Ptah, Qetesh, Ra, Renpet, Saa, Saosis, Sarapis, Satet, Satis, Seb, Sebek, Sechat-Hor, Sepa, Seker, Sekhmet, Seshet, Sesmu, Seth, Shai, Shu, Sia, Sothis, Su, Taurt, Tefnut, Tenenit, Thoth, Unut, Urthekau
Book Of the Dead
The Book of the Dead was a series of almost two hundred magical texts,
hymns and illustrations recorded on papyrus, which were placed with the
dead in order to ease their passage into the underworld.
Egyptians believed they could pass to an afterlife. They believed that the
soul or the Ka as it is known, could survive death if the body was preserved.
Therefore, embalming and mummification was practiced. All soft tissues
like the brain and most of the internal organs were removed. The cavities were washed and then packed with natron, and the body buried in a pile of natron. The intestines, lungs, liver and the stomach were preserved separately and stored in jars protected by the four sons of Horus: Duamutef (stomach), Qebhsenuef (intestines), Hapi (lungs), and Imsety (liver). The brain was smashed with a hook and removed through the nose. The heart is not taken out of the body because it is the centre of intelligence and feeling and the man will need it in the afterlife.
After being treated with natron the bodies were coated inside and out with resin to preserve them, then they were wrapped with linen bandages. Important religious items were then embedded within the linen.
The weighing of the heart occurred before proceeding on to either the afterlife or the "Eater of souls".
The heart was thought to contain all of the information about one's past life. Upon death, the heart was weighed in a judgment for afterlife. The ceremony of the weighing of the heart occurrs in the Hall of Judgement. The deceased is led into the hall by Anubis. The deceased's heart is placed on a scale and weighed against the Maat's Feather of Truth. Anubis then adjusts the scale's plummet. Thoth then records the verdict. If the deceased is judged to have lived a good life, they are taken by Horus to Osiris where they will live in the afterlife. If the deceased has been judged to have lived an evil life, they are then led to "Ammit" the Devourer of Souls. If this happens, their soulds cease to exist forever.
For the most part, ancient Egyptians worshipped a pantheon consisting of numerous Gods and Goddesses. But during the time of Amenhotep IV along with his wife, Queen Nefertiti 1364-1347 B.C.E. only one God was worshipped. And this was the Sun God known as "Ra" who later evolved into "Aten". Upon Amenhotep's death, the Egyptians reverted back to worshipping all of their former pantheon once again. By the way, Akhenaten's successor was the pharoah known as "Tutankhamen".
The Egyptian Book of Rites was called; Hebet En Ba. They were known to have employed the use of the Sacred Circle within their rites. The four "deities" or Neteru (the Egyptian word for Spiritual Powers) which represented the four quarters were; Tuameutev (East), Amset (South), Qebsenuv (West), and Hapi (North).
Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Hieroglyphs are word pictures which represent the sounds of the Ancient Egyptian language. There are two basic types of hieroglyphs: Ideograms and Phonograms.
Ideograms are the images that depict the object they represent.
Phonograms are images that represent the sounds of the Ancient Egyptian language.
To view the Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Enter
The ancient Egyptians followed a very specific procedure for mummification. This procedure consisted of three stages.
The Removing of the Organs
The body would be stripped and placed on a board. The brain was then extracted though the nose using a brain hook. The empty brain cavity would then be filled with resin or a combination of linen and resin.
The chest would then be cut open and the main organs would be removed with exception of the heart.
The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines would be washed and packed in natron in order to dry them out. They are often packed in canopic jars for preservation. Generally a set of four canopic jars would be used.
These four jars represented:
Imsety the human-headed god who looks after the liver.
Hapy the baboon-headed god who looks after the lungs.
Duamutef the jackal-headed god who looks after the stomach.
Qebehsenuef the falcon-headed god who looks after the intestines.
The heart is not taken out of the body for religious reasons related to ones travels to the Underworld.
The body cavity would be washed and packed with natron. Natron is a naturally occurring salt.
The body would be allowed to dry for up to 40 days.
The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in linen and returned to the body. The body is then stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike.
Finally the body is covered again with sweet-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen and placed into a sarcophagus in preparation for the burial process which included the Opening of the Mouth Ceremony.