Egyptian Hieroglyphics Section
Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs. They are Phonetic glyphs, which include single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; logographs, which represent morphemes; and determinatives, which narrow down the meaning of logographic or phonetic words. This was later developed into a form of writing known as the hieratic (priestly) and demotic (popular) scripts.
Phonetic glyphs are redundant characters accompanying biliteral or triliteral signs which are called phonetic complements. They can be placed in front of the sign (though rarely), after the sign (as a general rule), or even framing it (appearing both before and after).
A logogram, or logograph, is a grapheme which represents a word. This stands in contrast to phonograms, which represent phonemes (speech sounds).
Determinatives or semagrams are placed at the end of a word. These mute characters serve to clarify what the word is about.
Following are the basic symbols which represent the Egyptian Hieroglyphs.
Letter Hieroglyph: Represents: Pronounced:
A Vulture ah (father)
Forearm able, make
B Foot boy
C Basket Both the Basket and the Hillside are pronounced
as a ck sound as found in the words: candy and caramel.
Hillside Folded Cloth Soft "C" sound (nice, cent)
CH Hobble Rope Church, Choose
D Hand Delta, Dime
E Two Reeds Leaves Use two reed leaves for the long "e" sounds in words like reed, read.
Vulture Use the vulture for the e sounds in words like earn and
F Horned Viper Far, Fort
G Pot Stand Use the pot stand for the hard g sound in words like girl and go. Use the cobra for the soft "g" sound in Cobra words like George and gentle.
H Shelter Use either the shelter or the rope symbol for the h sound in words like hit and who Rope
I Reed Leaf Use one reed leaf for both the short and the long "i" sounds such as bit and bite.
J Cobra Jam, Jinx
K Basket Use either the basket or the hillside for the k (hard c) sound in words like kite, cat, back.
L Open Mouth Late, Loaf
M Owl Mud, Crumb
N Water Nile, Bone
O Quail Chick Use the quail chick symbol for the "o" sounds in words like moon and hoot.
Vulture Use the vulture for the o sounds in words like cot and bought.
P Stool Pet, Pond
PH Horned Viper Pharaoh, Phone
Q Basket Combine the basket (k) and the quail chick (w) to make the qu (kw) sound in words like queen and quick. Quail Chick
R Open Mouth Rain, Crown
S Folded cloth Use the folded cloth for the soft s (soft c) sound in words like house and piece.
SH Lake Ship, Machine
T Bread Loaf Tell, Left
U Quail Chick Cut, Full, Pull
Leaf and Quail Chick Combine one reed leaf and the quail chick to make the long "u" sound in words like mule and fuel.
V Horned Viper Video, Cover
W Quail Chick When, What, Where
X Basket Combine the basket (k) and the folded cloth (s) to make the x (ks) sound in words like box and extra. Folded Cloth
Y Reed Leaf You, Yes, and Crayon
Two Reed Leaves (long e) sound in words like Mary and Yvonne.
Z Door Bolt Use the door bolt for the z sound in words like Zebra and Xerox.